Dominique Raynaud got in touch to spread the word about his new book - please all feel free to do the same if you have any new publications out.
Have a nice weekend,
I am pleased to announce a book about the diffusion of optics within the network of medieval universities for inclusion in the HNR Newsletter. The main interests are Science and Technology and Medieval History.
Also note that the Publisher will provide a pdf review copy to potential reviewers.
The following is a summary of the topics:
Optics and the Rise of Perspective. A Study in Network Knowledge Diffusion, Oxford, 2014http://www.bardwell-press.co.uk/publications/Optics.htm
Why did linear perspective rise in trecento–quattrocento central Italy rather than in any other cultural context? This book provides new insight into the question of the early Italian pioneership in perspective, building on the fact that many references to optics can be found in Renaissance treatises. The fact that most of the medieval optical manuscripts were written by Franciscan masters — the best known among them being Roger Bacon and John Pecham — suggests the need for a closer look at how the medieval universities (studia generalia) operated. An in-depth study of recruitment highlights the exceptional mobility of masters and lectors throughout Europe. However, through the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the closer a university was to central Italy, the more cosmopolitan it was. This is a result of the topology of the academic network, since cosmopolitanism depends on the studium’s closeness centrality. This is why, through the masters’ mobility, knowledge circulating in the network preferentially flowed into central Italy.
This book is a study of the intellectual context in which perspective came to be a key part of visual representation in Western culture and science. It uses a broad spectrum of methods, ranging from the biographies of university scholars and textual concordance to cross-cultural comparison, advanced network analysis and modelling.
Dominique Raynaud is a sociologist and historian of science who previously trained as an architect. He is the author of many articles and books in the field, among which are L’Hypothèse d’Oxford. Essai sur les origines de la perspective (Paris, 1998), Sociologie des controverses scientifiques (Paris, 2003) and La Sociologie et sa vocation scientifique (Paris, 2006).
List of Tables and Illustrations
1. First Steps Towards Linear Perspective
Assisi's Frescoes Practical and Theoretical Perspective
2. Frescoes' Commissioners
The Minister General The Minister's Academic Training
3. Outline of this Book
CHAPTER 1Perspective and its Optical Backing
1. Insignificant Factors
Third-ranking Factors Second-ranking Factors
2. The Main Factor: Availability of Optics
Classical, Arabic and Latin Optics Optics and the Translatio Studiorum
3. Academic vs. Private Interest in Optics
Optics Outside the Quadrivium Two Testimonies
PART I: WHY DID OPTICS NOT LEAD TO PERSPECTIVE IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM?
CHAPTER 2The Axiological Foundations of Perspective
1. Arabic Theoretical Knowledge on Perspective
The Perspective of the Circle Intersecting the Visual Pyramid The Route to the Vanishing Point The Rectilinear Propagation of Light
2. Arabic Disregard for Practical Perspective
The Sociability Factor: Artisans and Scientists The Religious Factor: Presumed Aniconism The Axiological Factor: Overt Antirealism
PART II: WHY DID PERSPECTIVE ARISE IN CENTRAL ITALY?
CHAPTER 3Academic Recruitment and Mobility
1. Optics Diffusion Actors
The Distribution of Manuscripts A Critical Assessment Distributions Compared to Ecclesiastic Institutions Localization of Manuscripts Displaced MSS Undisplaced MSS
2. Mobility and Recruitment of Lectors
The Organization of Studia Generalia Masters and Lectors Estimating Cosmopolitanism
3. Territorial Organization
Studia, Custodies and Provinces Academic Recruitment Pools
CHAPTER 4The Studia Generalia Network
1. A Small World Hypothesis
Devising the Academic Network The Distinctive Properties of Social Networks Modelling the Academic Network
2. Centrality and Cosmopolitanism
1. Degree Centrality 2. Betweenness Centrality 3. Closeness Centrality 4. Constraint and Transitivity 5. The Law of Cosmopolitanism/Closeness
3. Special Communities and Vertices
1. Structural Equivalence 2. Network Hierarchical Clustering 3. Network Dynamic Partition 4. Reticular Roles
CHAPTER 5Knowledge Diffusion Simulation
1. Diffusion and Social Networks
On Random Modelling Network Simulation
2. University Network Specific Properties
The Distribution of Optical Manuscripts Limits of the Present Analysis
3. General Properties of the University Network
Six Properties Zelanti's Spatial Distribution Neo-Augustinism Spatial Distribution
4. Concluding Remarks on the Diffusion Process
Basic Assumptions Adopters and Critical Mass Laws and Empirical Data Explaining Diffusion Curve Irregularities Discretness of Social Networks Heterogeneity of Social Networks Anisotropy of Social Networks
APPENDIX 1List of OFM University Lectors
1. Lectors at the Studium Oxoniense (1229-1345)
2. Lectors at the Studium Parisiense (1231-1320)
3. Lectors at the Studium Bononiense (1223-1369)
APPENDIX 2List of OFM Universities
APPENDIX 3List of OFM Provinces
1. Provinciale Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Vetustissimus Secundum Codicem Vaticanum Nr. 1960
2. Translation. Register of the Franciscan Provinces From MS. Vatican No. 1960
Index of Names
Wishing you a pleasant reading!
Université de Grenoble AlpesPhilosophie, Langages & Cognition – PLC EA 3699Bat. ARSH 2Domaine universitaire38040 Grenoble Cedex 9☎︎ +33 (0)4 76 82 58 00https://upmf-grenoble.academia.edu/dominiqueraynaud